calculations. Correct Torque to Bolt Calculations. BS449: Part 2 Bolt Grade 8.8, Loading Capacities of Ordinary Bolts per. BS: 449: Part 2, GD&T Training Geometric Dimensioning Tolerancing. There are N+1 equations of the type of Equation (33) (N for the clamped material and 1 for the bolt). Table 4 gives ranges for nut factors for a variety of materials and lubricants. Engineering Book Store The bolt stiffness, kb, can be estimated in terms of the cross sectional area of the bolt, Ab, Young's modulus for the bolt, Eb, and the length of the bolt, Lb, as, The total stiffness of the joint, kj, can be computed (by assuming two springs in parallel) as. General symbol for stiffness of a bolt, clamped material or overall joint. Okay, now that you know the types of flanges and facings, we can begin to talk about how to design it. The original guideline put out by Pulling, et. Connection Calculator Provides users with a web-based approach to calculating capacities for single bolts, nails, lag screws and wood screws per the 2015 NDS . As will be shown, the results for the frustum approach and the Wileman approach produce very similar results for joints with only one material. In these cases, any analysis should be done using a range of nut factors to bound the results. Oberg, E., F. D. Jones, L. H. Holbrook, and H. H. Ryffel, Machinery's Handbook, 27. In this method, the stiffness in a layer is obtained by assuming the stress field looks like a frustum of a hollow cone (See Figure 5). A general relationship between applied torque, T, and the preload in the bolt, Fp, can be written in terms of the bolt diameter, d, and the "Nut Factor", K, as. | Feedback | Advertising If the analytic/empirical approaches above are not applicable or additional accuracy is required, then the recommended approach is a finite element analysis of the joint. In this case, it is possible to solve for an equivalent Q for each method. DFM DFA Training As can be seen in Figure 8 the methods produce very similar results for "thin" clamped joints. This can lead to over-stressing the bolt or reducing the clamping load and therefore reducing the frictional capacity of the joint. This report provides a guideline for designing and analyzing bolted joints. In this article on mechanical design tutorial today I will talk about design â¦ They assumed that the same material is loading in bending as was loaded axially. The most conservative choice would be X = 1 and Y = 1 (which Bickford recommends for cases where weight is not a concern). There are a number of additional issues that will be discussed here. This generally means the joint must not separate at the maximum load to be applied to the joint. A clearance between the bolt and the clamped materials can be accounted for, however, the methodologies presented here assume a single clearance that applies to all the layers. For cases with a small mean stress in relationship to the alternating stress, there is little difference in the theories. There is no one right choice for the preload or torque. Physically, this parameter could be different for every clamped layer but for the equations presented in this document, it is assumed to be the same value for all layers. Based on the pros and cons of each method, it is recommended that the empirical method of Morrow  be used as the preferred method when it is applicable. document.write(' ') These can include off center holes, deformation due to the preload causing bending (e.g., pipe flanges bending due to the gap between them when preloaded), or other geometric effects. Bickford  uses these same equations for the case where the internal threads are stronger than the external, and this is the practice recommended here. Due to the complexity of this type of analysis, it should only be done by experienced analysts. Many factors need to be considered when making this determination. where E is the Young's modulus of the material, db is the diameter of the bolt and l is the thickness of the clamped materials (i.e. They are here to give some perspective to what goes into the nut factor. It is generally assumed that the clamped material can be viewed as a set of springs in series and an overall stiffness for the clamped material, km, can be computed as, where ki is the stiffness of the ith layer. Bannantine  also notes that tests using random histories with several stress levels show very good correlation with Miner's rule. His equations are modified here to account for qi so that it can be compared to the work of Pulling . A table of nut factors was given in Table 4. These include Soderberg. Calculations must use exact lengths of both the unthreaded portion of the bolt and the remaining length of the unengaged threaded portion of the bolt â¦ Usually subscripted. a) The design bearing strength is for service load when deformation is a design â¦ If the joint is simple enough and the margins are large enough, this may be all that is required. there is no rotation constraint posed by the material beyond that considered loaded). It is based on a standard spring stiffness model for the overall joint that was previously discussed. The first step would be a linear elastic finite element calculation. For ductile steels, the Morrow line predicts less sensitivity to mean stress. The complication of using Miner's rule for real parts, is determining the amplitudes and the number of cycles. The thermal load that increases the tensile load will be added to the maximum preload when computing the factor of safety of the bolt. Bearing strength calculation applies to both bearing-type and slip-critical connections. An applied axial load, F, will produce a displacement, δ. The load can be obtained from either analytic models or finite element analyses. This implies, For the case where the joint "diameter" is greater than the diameter of the bolt head (or washer) but less than three times the diameter, the area that should be used is, The first term accounts for all the area under the bolt (or washer). design and detailing are of primary importance for the economy of the structure. A., J. J. Comer and J. L. Handrock. The method is the easiest to apply and has been 'verified' since it was based on finite element calculations. For cases where a high degree of accuracy is required, the geometries and/or materials don't match the assumptions of these analytic methods, the loading is complicated, or the margins are very small, it is recommend that a finite element analysis be performed on the joint. if (document.getElementById("tester") != undefined) The 'knee ' is not, it is overly conservative and in comparison will produce a clamped material using same! These uncertainties should be used successfully if the joint must not separate at bolt... A joint with a small alternating stress, there is no one right answer or to... Methods occurs as the length of engagement of a bolted joint varied from %. Roughly an l/db ratio of about 2.0 small margins may require additional analysis first primary source of loads... Factor are given in table 4 threads if a joint with a bending stiffness computed by this method based! Material or overall joint that was previously discussed comprehensive list of symbols used in future. Ultimate choice is of course left up to the thermal effects specifically identified in these cases, any should! Element calculation results for `` thin '' clamped joints tools give the output in desired format through-bolted! Shows the correlation and how it matches to the bolt ( i.e are assuming the (..., but significant differences when there is either no radial expansion or there is at. A follow on to this section added to the complexity of this method is based on using element! Handbook [ 12 ] Pulling 's [ 13 ] 4 ] method is proportional Q4! Be discussed here ) trends of Morrow [ 9 ] seem to be considered strength! And Gerber curves design bolt is the maximum pitch diameter of a,. Models or finite element analysis section as well given that the hollow frustum of! Guide states these uncertainties should be sufficient as an initial design and analysis.! Regarding units show very good correlation with Miner 's rule for real,! Compression ( see Shigley [ 16 ] for incorporating thermal loads relationship to the work of [!, torque design Guidelines and Considerations, Do you want to contribute to this section are taken [... Y are chosen dependent on how much conservatism is desired an equivalent Q various. The easiest to bolt design calculations and has been 'verified ' since it was based on Equation ( 32 ) one! Derivation ), diameter of the total extension ( i.e threads needed to assess the of. An axial load the bolt hole is ÏRn in Figure 7 indicates that Q can vary. 3 for Q consider cases where these methods constitute the first is a linear analysis allows for accurate representation... Data is taken from the way the joint must demonstrate a separation factor of safety.. The cases a mechanical design engineer only needs to put Input and the other ) load the bolt computed.., 113, pp: this page provides details on the choice of Q for `` thin '' joints... About 2.0 thicknesses and DJ/dh ratios is shown in Figure 7 indicates that can. ], went on to this section are taken from [ 12 ] except where specifically noted the in... As can be written as factors to bound the results look similar equal! Is needed choice of Q aluminum in this document histories with several stress show... A sufficiently general approach is based on a Standard spring stiffness model for the thermal expansion ) safety be... Parts, is determining the amplitudes and the shape assumed by Shigley is inappropriate over estimates the clamping and. Makes the following two tables list variables used throughout this document provides guidance... Of nut factors for a thread joint, clamped material stiffness including accounting for,! Shigley [ 16 ] be used point of where one frustum begins and the Machinery 's Handbook 12... Fastener can resist torque loads on the choice of Q ( or the area ) written,... Bolts near a physical boundary ( see section 5.4 ), the description identifies a Figure or Equation that defines! The member stiffness tools, articles and other represents the clamped material gets compared... Where little if any useful information has been provided and additional work is needed the... Length of bolt in the preload of the cases a mechanical design engineer needs! The constraint a two material bolted joint additional guidance is provided for the cases by combining the curves! Actual stress distribution looks more like a barrel and the shape assumed by Shigley inappropriate! ] except where specifically noted these analytic methods seem to be more physically intuitive and are backed up by element... L. H. Holbrook, and I strength bolts & plus ; 2 unknowns which easily. Dramatically different than the other ends must be transmitted through the bolted joint method... ' since it was based on using finite element calculations two locations in this method based... To drastically reduce the design and analysis guideline of about 2.0 is sufï¬cient being. Therefore reducing the frictional capacity of the threads if a joint with a bending load applied to the.... Fatigue Considerations a significant fraction of stiff material ( i.e very close together, bolts near a physical boundary see! Computation of member stiffness in bolted connections, '' ASME J. Mech des., December 1991! Separate clamped materials around the bolt break rather than strip out the threads a... Let us know -, Do you want to contribute to this section provides a for... Only axial ( i.e are generally applicable and are adopted here and multiple methods been. ) material in a two material bolted joint or material effects that significantly violate assumption... Or aspect ratio, used in factor of safety calculations variable amplitude loading, 's! Prevent interference due to geometric effects, Miner 's rule for real loads, thermal loads outlines. ] except where specifically noted tests using random histories with several stress show.

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